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Pacific Lutheran University

Inquiry. Service. Leadership. Care.


General nursing research guide and course and degree specific pages.

Session Overview

• Introduction to the library

• Developing a search strategy

• Choosing a research resource

• CINAHL searching and citation interpretation

• Article retrieval and ILL

• Reading and interpreting nursing research

• Saving results and setting up search alerts

• APA and source citation

Evidence Based Practice

Developing Your Search Strategy

Your topic will probably start very general and move toward the specific. The more you can refine your topic, the easier and more successful your literature search will be.

To develop your thinking about your topic and generate keywords to use in your search, use PICO:

  • Population: the people you are interested in finding out about. Most of the suggested topics concern older adults. What other attributes might they possess?
  • Intervention: what intervention is being proposed, and for what illness, condition, or situation?
  • Comparison: how does the proposed intervention compare with others, or with the existing standard of care?
  • Outcome: what results are expected or hoped for from the intervention?

Also consider synonyms for the terms or concepts you come up with--instead of "elderly", "aged" might be a more useful term. You'll discover more as part of your research process.

Choosing a Research Resource

Most in-depth research will require searching more than one resource. You may search multiple databases, data repositories, and the Internet. Databases and other resources may curate their content according to several criteria:

  1. Types of information (research studies, review literature, gathered data, practice guidelines, etc)
  2. Subject matter (nursing only, nursing and allied health, biomedical literature, psychology, interdisciplinary)
  3. Type of source (research journals, newspapers, organizational documents, etc)

CINAHL via EBSCO logoCINAHL, or Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, is the world's most comprehensive nursing research database. Our subscription includes the full text of over 600 journals, plus links out to other nursing research databases and library subscriptions. From primary research literature to systematic reviews to the latest evidence-based practice, CINAHL may be the only database you need to complete your assignment.

Search tips:

  • Start with the keywords you wrote above
  • Look for additional search terms in the suggested subject headings, titles of articles, and individual article subject headings
  • Use Boolean operators—AND, OR, NOT—to make your search more specific and more powerful
  • Select subject heading specifications—MW, MH, MJ, MM—to focus your search
  • Use CINAHL search limiters (on the Advanced Search page) to specify language, study population age range, publication type, peer review

Search CINAHL now.

More nursing, medicine, and allied health databases are available via the Find Articles tab above.

Interpret Citations

Even before looking at the article, you can determine its potential usefulness and quality from its citation information. Here are some characteristics to look for:

Author affiliation: where/who authors work for
Publication type: whether item is a journal article and whether it’s research:

  • Systematic review or meta-analysis
  • Controlled trial, randomized or not
  • Case control or cohort study
  • Descriptive or qualitative study
  • Editorial, letter, opinion, practice guideline

Major/minor subjects: article’s area of focus, study population, methodology—good source of additional search terms, too
Abstract: summary of article’s content, can give you an idea of its rigor and evidence basis
Journal subset: look here to see if journal is peer reviewed

Evaluating Your Articles

Your assignment requires that identify an article of interest, explain why it's interesting, why it's important, and how you might apply it. How do you choose?

  • Evidence-based means that the article's assertions are based on evidence; that it either is a piece of documented research, i.e., a study, or that it cites such studies to support its claims. An article that makes claims about healthcare without backing them up with evidence is not evidence based. Click the tab labeled "EBP" above for more about evidence-based practice.
  • In general, a quality work of evidence-based research will have the following characteristics:
    • Undergone a review process;
    • Have expert authors;
    • Been published in a reputable source;
    • Be an example of original research, or else cite such research;
    • If a research article, include all of the component parts and describe its research methodology;
    • Cite its sources in a reference list;
    • Answer an easily identifiable and articulated question;
    • Implications relevant to your research topic.

Attached below is a more detailed rubric covering these criteria. Feel free to use it to evaluate research resources.

Still not Sure?

Does something about the article's content or conclusions seem off? Not sure whether the evidence supports the claim? Evaluate your article more thoroughly with the: